What goes into our tasty meals and treats?
ingredients from plant sources
Ash is not an ingredient but is included in the glossary because of the common misconception that it is.
It’s actually a measurement of the non-combustible material in the food which is left after burning and indicates the total mineral content.
All pet food labels must declare the ash content, but sometimes it is listed as “inorganic matter”.
Beet pulp is an excellent source of both soluble and insoluble fibre. Soluble fibre is used to produce short-chain fatty acids (which supply energy to the friendly bowel flora). It delays gastric emptying, so there is more time for absorption, and improves peristalsis (the contractions that move the food along the digestive tract). Insoluble fibre ensures an optimal transit time of food within the intestine, dilutes the colonic contents and binds to toxins, helps promote the right consistency of stool, and it may aid dietary satisfaction. Beet pulp is not a common allergen because it does not contain very much protein, nor does it turn the coat red.
Blackberries contain a type of antioxidant called anthocyanins that are especially helpful keeping free radicals in check within the brain and mouth. They are a good source of vitamin C, fibre, vitamin K & manganese, and human studies indicate they may improve blood sugar and insulin response.
The anthocyanins in blackcurrants have been documented in people to have antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-obesity effects, as well as protect blood vessels & provide cardiovascular support. They are a rich source of vitamin C (with approx. 2mg/100g) and also supply vitamin A, E and the B vitamin family. Blackcurrants also contain fibre, minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper) plus omega-3 & 6 fatty acids. In herbal medicine, their antihistamine properties are used to help with dermatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, and feline asthma. Blackcurrants are *TRUE CURRANTS* they're not dried grapes
Black pepper contains a substance called piperine, which inhibits the metabolic breakdown of turmeric compounds in the gut and liver, allowing them to remain in the body for longer so that they have more time to work. The synergy (combined greater effect) of piperine and curcumin has been well-documented over many years. Black pepper also contains limonene and beta-caryophyllene - natural substances that may also protect against inflammation, cellular damage & progression to disease status, and it has its own antioxidant properties.
Blueberries contain more anthocyanins than any other fruit or berry. Blueberries have been extensively researched and several canine studies have been conducted. Researchers in Italy found that after 18 weeks, service dogs eating blueberries had a significant reduction of oxidative stress.Another study compared the antioxidant levels in sled dogs and found that those eating blueberries were much better protected against oxidative damage than the control group.
Carrots are a good source of fibre, plus many vitamins and minerals including vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese and potassium.
Chia seeds are the richest plant source of Omega-3 fatty acids. They contain many antioxidants (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol) which have hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial and immunostimulatory effects. These antioxidants are especially useful in helping to protect the heart and liver. Ayuverdic medicine suggests chia seeds nourish the blood & promote digestive regularity thanks to their ability to absorb water in the gastrointestinal tract, forming a gel-like substance, as well as reduce inflammation, promote kidney health and support proper hydration.
Our citrus extract supplement helps maintain a healthy microbiome and enhances immune response via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Citrus extract is a rich source of a type of antioxidant called flavonoids including hesperidin and naringin. Studies by the manufacturer have demonstrated its use may reduce the rate of infection, decrease virulence factors (disease evoking elements produced by bacteria including toxins and surface coatings that inhibit phagocytosis), stimulate mucus production (resulting in more goblet cells for better respiratory tract protection), increase local (natural/acquired) immunity, reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (molecules that worsen inflammation) as well as decrease free radicals.
Pure, cold-pressed coconut oil has many benefits since it contains a diverse array of antioxidants (tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, flavonoids & polyphenols) that can help to keep damaging free radicals in check. It is a source of lauric acid which has anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties, as well as medium chain triglycerides that are beneficial to the gut and brain. It is a pure, cold-pressed source to help retain nutrient values.
Cranberries are very well recognised in human health for their benefits to the urinary system and research supports that it can have benefits to dogs and cats too. They contain D-mannose and hippuric acid, which prevent harmful bacteria from sticking to the mucosal walls, as well as arbutin, which is effective against certain bacteria and fungi, including Candida. Cranberries can also support oral health. Their antioxidant and antiviral properties further illustrate the versatility of this small but valuable fruit.
Curcumin has long been employed for a wide range of human health conditions in Indian Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine, and its use in animals is now more widely studied. It is a compound found in the turmeric spice, which has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. It can also increase the number of antioxidants produced by the body to help protect against free radicals and stimulates the production of more bile in the liver which helps fat digestion. Curcumin’s bioavailability is enhanced by black pepper (which helps it to stay in the body for longer) and its absorption is improved by the inclusion of a highly digestible fat source.
Hippocrates (the forefather of modern medicine) referred to the elder tree as his "medicine chest" because of its many benefits. In people, elderberry supplementation has been shown to reduce the duration & symptoms of colds and flu. Elderberries contain the flavonols quercetin (which restricts histamine from being released from the cells), kaempferol (which is similar to & works well with quercetin) & isorhamnetin (particularly good for heart health).
Green tea extract
Green tea extract (from the plant Camellia sinensis) is a source of antioxidants called catechins which provide support to the immune and cardiovascular systems. The Indians and Chinese have used the green tea for hundreds of years for a wide variety of uses including the treatment of headaches and aching body parts. It is approximately twice more antioxidant-active than vitamin C.
Lingonberries are a source of many antioxidants, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Research indicates that the quercetin in lingonberries can reduce arthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties. These incredible little berries also have evidence supporting that their phytochemicals may be effective against Staphylococcus bacteria and inhibit bacterial growth orally. In women, there are studies showing that taking lingonberry extract regularly may reduce urinary tract infections (especially those caused by E Coli).
Linseed (flax) is a good source of fibre, Omega-3 alpha linolenic acid, Omega-6 linoleic acid, and lignans (which have antioxidant properties). It is rich in vitamins and minerals including vitamin B1, vitamin B3, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous and copper and may have particular benefits to the skin and hair as well as support a healthy digestion.
Maize (corn) is a complex carbohydrate which is a good source of energy, and nutrients including vitamin B3, vitamin B5, vitamin B6, manganese, phosphorous and fibre. It also contains the amino acids methionine and cysteine, which dogs can use to help manufacture taurine (important for heart health). Sweetcorn kernels are indigestible when fed raw, but when cooked within an extruded pet food, the digestibility exceeds 85%. Corn is a gluten-free grain.
Malt extract is the natural sugar (maltose) that is extracted from germinated barley grains, so it doesn’t contain any gluten, nor any protein. It is therefore safe for animals with a gluten sensitivity. It is very compatible with the yeast in the food and makes for an attractive umami flavour and aroma.
MSM (methyl-sulphonyl-methane) is a form of organic sulphur derived from pine bark which has many benefits due to its detoxifying, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is especially useful in terms of joint support as it helps disrupt the destruction of cartilage and protect articular cartilage, and blocks pain impulses in the nerve fibres. MSM also helps restore elasticity and permeability to cell membranes.
Mulberries are traditionally recognised in Unani, Ayurveda, & Chinese systems of medicine, and in 1985, the Ministry of Health of China recorded the mulberry as the first medicinal & edible fruit! They supply carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins (and are particularly rich in vitamin C), minerals (including iron), and fibre. They are also a diverse source of antioxidants: anthocyanins, cyanadin, chlorogenic acid, rutin & myricetin, and have anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. In Chinese medicine, mulberries are used to strengthen the joints, reduce hypotension, reduce fever, protect the liver & support the urinary tract
Nucleotides are derived from a special type of nutritional yeast. They increase the surface area for the absorption of nutrients within the small intestine, which may improve the efficiency of the digestion. Nucleotides also support immunity as they help the defence cells to replicate more quickly when challenged, e.g., by infectious organisms.
Parsley is a good source of vitamins (vitamin B9, A, C and K) and minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, and potassium). It’s also a very flavourful herb and full of detoxifying chlorophyll).
Peas are a nutritious plant powerhouse and contain protein, fat, carbs and fibre. This low GI, low sodium ingredient is a good natural source of vitamins (inc A, B family, C & E) and minerals (including zinc, magnesium and potassium). Peas also contain lutein and zeaxanthin (antioxidants that are important for healthy vision).
Pea fibre is derived from the shells of peas, not the pods. It is used to increase the insoluble fibre content without upsetting the nutrient balance (it is mostly insoluble fibre), and can also improve texture, form/stability and "mouth-feel".
Pea starch is a low allergen ingredient that positively impacts the palatability of the food by improving its texture.
Pomegranate is rich in vitamin C, K and B9. It is also a good source of potassium (which helps regulate fluid balance, muscle contractions and nerve signals) and contains a very diverse array of antioxidants including flavonoids, anthocyanins, punicic acid, ellagitannins and anti-inflammatory alkaloids. Research has shown that the antioxidant properties of pomegranate may be especially effective alongside taurine and L-carnitine; together demonstrating vasoprotective activity (decreasing the vulnerability of blood vessels to cardiovascular risk factors).
White potato is a very digestible carbohydrate source, and it is rich in vitamin C, B6 and potassium. It is often an ideal alternative carbohydrate source for animals known or suspected to be allergic or intolerant to grains.
Potato protein helps controls ash levels and avoids the need to add an additional animal protein source if a limited ingredient recipe is required for sensitive animals. It is also good for food texture, and a source of the amino acids isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Prebiotic FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides) are derived from the chicory plant. This type of prebiotic can only be broken down by the friendly gut bacteria, and when this takes place, the energy that is produced is utilised by the beneficial flora and enables them to reproduce efficiently. A thriving colony of the good gut bacteria may limit the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
Prebiotic MOS (mannose-oligosaccharides) are derived from yeast. This type of prebiotic stimulates the growth of the friendly gut flora, but it also acts as a gut security guard, mopping up pathogenic organisms and helping to transport them out of the body. In addition, prebiotic MOS has been demonstrated to increase the length and density of the intestinal villi (projections that increase the surface area for absorption).
Pumpkin seedcake is rich in protein, and a good source of methionine and cysteine (amino acids involved in heart, liver and skin support). It helps to regulate liver activities and has a protective effect on hepatic cells. It also supplies minerals (iron, zinc and magnesium) and carotene (precursor of vitamin A). It’s a source of tocopherols (antioxidants) and enhances the activity of other antioxidants.
Quercetin is a water-soluble plant pigment. Ours is derived from citrus fruits including oranges. Studies suggest that quercetin may promote antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, antiviral, and immuno-protective effects.
Raspberries contain more ellagic acid (a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant) than any other fruit or berry. Ellagic acid can help protect collagen & reduce inflammation in uv light exposed skin and it is particularly beneficial to gut health. Raspberries are also rich in other antioxidants including quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins, cyanidins, catechins, kaempferol, and salicylic acid.
Rice is a very digestible energy source and usually very well tolerated. We use white rice rather than brown because there are already effective fibre and B vitamin sources in our products. Rice is a gluten-free grain that contains little protein and is therefore not commonly associated with food allergies. It’s low in sodium and a natural source of vitamin B6 and magnesium. We use white rice (i.e., brown rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed) since quality is easier to assess, and this helps prevent spoilage and extend the storage life of this ingredient. It is also easier to digest minus the husks.
Rosehips are a rich natural source of vitamin C, pectic acid (which can help inhibit gut inflammation) and a type of antioxidant called carotenoids (which may help to decrease the risk of certain cancers and degenerative eye conditions). A rosehip supplement can contribute to skin and joint support because of its stabilising effects on cell membranes of stored erythrocyte cells and it is also a good source of vitamins A, E, K, B1, B2, B3 & B6.
Seaweed extract contains many phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals including iodine. Iodine is necessary for efficient cell respiration, nerve and muscle functioning, the growth and repair of tissues, and it helps to promote healthy skin, hair, teeth, and nails. Seaweed extract is included in the Arden Grange Partners canned food range.
Spirulina is a type of algae that contains beta carotene, vitamins B1, 2 and 3, iron and Omega-6 GLA (gamma-linolenic acid). It is a rich source of phycocyanin - a pigment with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. Phycocyanin promotes blood cell regeneration, improves lymphocyte activity and boosts the lymphatic system to improve immune function/enhance disease resistance. Spirulina is also a very good source of detoxifying chlorophyll which works in tandem with phycocyanin.
Sweet potato is primarily used in the grain free recipes as a low GI, low sodium carbohydrate source for energy. It is highly nutritious and a good source of many vitamins, including vitamin C and the B vitamin family (especially B6 which helps the digestive enzymes break down food). It is also a good source of minerals (potassium, magnesium, iron, copper and manganese). Sweet potato is particularly rich in beta-carotene, which is important for healthy vision
Tapioca is a gluten-free, starchy novel carb source for energy derived from cassava root. It contains only a trace of protein so is rarely allergenic. It’s low in simple sugars and sodium and is a natural source of calcium and iron. It provides a great source of nourishment for the friendly gut flora
Tocopherols are a form of vitamin E used to help protect the food from oxidation and prolong the shelf life. Without a preservative of some kind, the fats would soon become rancid and spoil the product. Tocopherols are a safe and natural alternative to chemical antioxidants.
Yeast is a rich source of B vitamins, and animals like the umami flavour. We use nutritional yeast which is an inactivated type rarely associated with allergic responses. Yeast allergies can arise, but they are usually an adverse immune response to pathogenic yeasts growing on or inside of the bodies rather that to nutritional yeast. Our yeast contains no gluten.
Yucca extract is derived from sap which has been extracted from the yucca schidigera cactus (Mohave yucca). All our dry diets are supplemented with yucca extract since it may help reduce odour and lawn staining due to its capacity to bind ammonium waste products. It’s a good source of saponins which have antioxidant properties.
Chicken is a good source of protein, niacin (B3), vitamin B6, selenium and phosphorous. All our chicken is barn - reared (no battery/intensive farming) in the UK, and husbandry is set to the strict criteria stipulated by DEFRA. These legislations state how the birds are fed, cared for and handled.
Lamb is another high quality source of meat protein, and it is also rich in many important vitamins and minerals, which we like to derive naturally where possible.
Pork provides an excellent alternative protein source for dogs who suffer from allergies to the more common meats such as chicken. It is rich in vitamin B12, niacin (B3), vitamin C, selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorous. Our fresh pork is farmed in the UK.
Fish is highly digestible, extremely nutritious and a rich source of the beneficial Omega-3 fatty acids. All of our fish is obtained from sustainable sources. We use only fish products which are fully traceable, derived from materials fit for human consumption and which are acceptable to the very stringent control measures imposed by the quality UK supermarkets.
Egg contains protein of the very highest biological value, and its inclusion ensures that the products have an excellent amino acid profile. Although cats and dogs are capable of producing some of the amino acids they require for a variety of structural and functional needs themselves, others which they cannot must be supplied via diet.